What Is a Bunion?
Even though bunions are among the most common foot deformities, there are a lot of misconceptions about them.
A bunion also referred to as Hallux values or Hallux abducto valgus, is often described as an enlargement or bump at these of the big toe. The bump that we see is actually representing a change in the big toe joint. The bump or bunion forms when the bone or tissue at the big toe joint moves out of place. This forces the toe to bend toward the others, causing an often painful lump of bone on the foot. Since this joint carries a lot of the body’s weight while walking, bunions can cause extreme pain if left untreated. The MTP joint itself may become stiff and sore, making even the wearing of shoes difficult or impossible.
A bunion—from the Latin bunio, meaning “enlargement”—can also occur on the outside of the foot along the little toe, where it is called a “bunionette” or “tailor’s bunion.”
- Development of a firm bump on the outside edge of the foot, at the base of the big toe.
- Redness, swelling, or pain at or near the MTP joint.
- Corns or other irritations caused by the overlap of the first and second toes.
- Restricted or painful motion of the big toe.
How Do You Get a Bunion?
Bunions form when the normal balance of forces that is exerted on the joints and tendons of the foot becomes disrupted. This can lead to instability in the joint and cause the deformity. They are brought about by years of abnormal motion and pressure over the MTP joint. They are, therefore, a symptom of faulty foot development and are usually caused by the way we walk, and our inherited foot type, our shoes, or other sources.
Although bunions tend to run in families, it is the foot type that is passed down—not the bunion. Parents who suffer from poor foot mechanics can pass their problematic foot type on to their children, who in turn are prone to developing bunions. The abnormal functioning caused by this faulty foot development can lead to pressure being exerted on and within the foot, often resulting in bone and joint deformities such as bunions and hammertoes.
Other causes of bunions are foot injuries, neuromuscular disorders, or congenital deformities. People who suffer from flat feet or low arches are also prone to developing these problems, as are arthritic patients and those with inflammatory joint disease. Occupations that place undue stress on the feet are also a factor; ballet dancers, for instance, often develop the condition. Wearing shoes that are too tight or cause the toes to be squeezed together is also a common factor, which could help explain why the disorder is particularly common among women.
Sometimes observation is all that is needed. To reduce the chance of damage to the joint, periodic evaluation and X-rays by your podiatrist are advised.
Early treatments are aimed at easing pain and preventing progression, but they won’t reverse the deformity itself. These types of treatments include: changes in shoe gear, pads and splints, activity modifications, anti-inflammatory methods, orthotics. A consultation with one of our Bay Area Foot Care Podiatrists can provide more information on these conservative methods.
When is surgery needed?
If non surgical treatments fail to relieve bunion pain and when the pain of the bunion interferes with daily activities; it is time to discuss surgical options with your Bay Area Foot Care foot specialist and surgeon.